Modeling of energy loss in wind turbine networks

Modeling of energy loss in wind turbine networks

As energy consumption increases worldwide, the use of sustainable and pollution-free energy means such as wind power has gained great attention. However, accurate modeling of the losses that occur when a large number of turbines operate together in a network is essential. Latest article in the magazine energies Focuses on developing a mathematical model for power factor maximization (C .).s).

Stady: A model for optimum power factor tracking and waste reduction for wind turbine systemsImage credit: chaiviewfinder / Shutterstock.com

What are wind turbines?

Wind turbines are a mechanical assembly that converts energy stored in the air into electrical energy. A wind turbine has a rotor in the front that rotates with air. Turbines are classified as horizontal axis and vertical axis based on the axis of rotation. The turbines operating on land are called coastal wind turbines and those in bodies of water are called offshore wind turbines.

Wind turbine power group and types of distributed losses.

Wind turbine power group and types of distributed losses. Image Credit: Sohail K et al., Energes

Advantages of wind energy

The production of electrical energy through wind energy has many advantages. First, it requires no fuel to run. It not only reduces operating costs significantly but is also beneficial in terms of being environmentally friendly and sustainable. In addition, the latest technological advances have transformed basic wind turbine ideas into amazingly efficient energy sources.

Disadvantages of wind energy

Wind turbines are known to be dangerous to animals. Flying birds and bats may be maimed or killed if they hit the rotors. In this sense, it poses a serious threat to birds. Wind turbines can be rather noisy, which is why they are generally found in remote places with few people. However, emerging innovations have helped reduce noise levels.

What is the power factor?

The wind energy sector frequently uses a power factor (C .).s) as a measure of wind turbine efficiency. cs It is the ratio of the real electrical power output of a wind turbine divided by the total wind power flowing through the rotor blades at a given wind speed. Power factor, when defined in this way, indicates the cumulative efficiency of the various components of a wind turbine system, such as rotating blades, gear trains, generators, and power systems.

Distribution of energy losses in different stages of direct drive wind turbines.

Distribution of energy losses in different stages of direct drive wind turbines. Image Credit: Sohail K et al., Energes

Although wind turbines may seem like a very efficient option, not all of the energy can be extracted from the wind that flows through its blades. Betz’s law states that the maximum energy that can be extracted from the wind via a wind turbine is about 59.3% under ideal conditions; In real life, the value ranges from 35% to 40%.

To manage the positions and attributes of a wind turbine structural system, several optimization and maximum power tracking methods have been introduced such as yaw, mean velocity, angular position, rotational acceleration and torque.

Multiple types of research on power factor optimization have been conducted in the past several decades, expanded by various conceptual and theoretical evaluations, maximal tracking sites, and refinement based on different approaches and perspectives.

Limitations of the previous search

Previous research has mostly focused on monitoring the power factor under threshold conditions related to wind direction and aerodynamic train of wind turbines, such as blade profile and angular position or TSR. However, very few researchers have studied the effect of the ideal power factor on wind turbine load management and energy loss reduction.

Geographical map of wind energy classification at 50 m altitude in different regions of Pakistan.

Geographical map of wind energy classification at 50 m altitude in different regions of Pakistan. Image Credit: Sohail K et al., Energes

research results

The generated model was used to determine the best Cs 100 watt direct drive wind turbines. Wind speed regions are grouped into five regions to better understand the effect of Cs On the mechanical and electrical output of wind turbines: there is no power generation zone, acceleration zone, active zone, ideal zone and finally power factor control zone.

In the case of small-scale wind turbines of 100 W, direct detection of the powertrain showed that the optimal value of Cs It was 0.48 for a 0° angle and a TSR 8.1 at a wind speed of approximately 11.2 m/s. Optimal position power output Cs The maximum phase was across that wind period, which resulted in lower power losses according to the results of the optimized control model and experimental system.

futuristic perspective

Future work may focus on building a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for current optimum control research to force the power factor to maintain the reference path, allowing for maximum aerodynamics performance versus minute changes in wind speed.

in-depth reading

Sohail K, Farzaneh H. Model for optimum power factor tracking and waste reduction for wind turbine systems. energies. 15 (11). 4159. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/15/11/4159

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